The major environmental benefit of the system is that the pyrolysis oil produced will replace fossil crude oil in the production of petrol and diesel. This is hugely beneficial for the climate, since pyrolysis oil produces as much as 90% less greenhouse gas emissions than the fossil alternative.

The pyrolysis plant’s environmental footprint is comparable to that of a small-scale biofuel boiler (5–10 MW). The plant will be responsible for a certain amount of emissions to air, noise and waste.

  • The flue gases from the combustion of the coke and non-condensible gases contain dust and nitrogen. Dust will be removed using an electrostatic filter. Regular control measurements take place to verify that values fall within the limits of the permit. The limit values are stricter than those set out in EU Directives for biomass-fired boilers in the same size class.
  • The area around Kastet is already subject to noise from local industries and from traffic on the roads and railway. However, the pyrolysis plant does not make a difference, noise levels fall within the guidelines recommended by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.
  • The residual products will mainly derive from the purification of the flue gases (bottom ash and fly ash). The volume will amount to around 1,000 tonnes per year.
  • The number of trucks coming and going around the sawmill site have declined due to the sawdust being used on site rather than being transported elsewhere. The pyrolysis oil is transported from the plant by a tanker.
  • The bio-oil has a strong, slightly smoky odour. To avoid the risk of nuisance odours, the bio-oil storage facility has been fitted with filters for the exhaust air.
  • The risk of dust formation is judged to be low because the sawdust is largely handled within closed systems.
  • There are no process water discharges from the plant.

The overall assessment is that the pyrolysis plant has limited environmental impact.

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